Legal system - Iceland

Inclusive education – Education for All – is the guiding policy for Iceland’s national education system from early years to the transition period. This means addressing and responding to all the learners’ learning needs without treating or defining those in need of special support any differently from other learners. In accordance with this, there is no separate legislation for special education at any of the four education levels in Iceland. In short, Education for All means that:

  • All learners have equal opportunities to attend school and acquire education in accordance with their ability and needs.
  • Schools must attend to the ability and needs of all learners.
  • Learners and/or their parents decide on which school they attend.
  • Learners in need of special support have the right to additional support and special provision.

In the school system, pre-school is considered to be the first education level. A key element of the system is coherence from pre-school level to upper secondary school level. In 2008 new acts that, among other things, strengthen this coherence were agreed for those educational levels, namely the Pre-School, Compulsory School, Upper Secondary School and Higher Education Acts. In addition, a number of implementing regulations have been issued that provide for various policy details. The Icelandic government has incorporated the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child (1992) into Icelandic law (in 2013) and adopted the Salamanca Statement (1994) and the Dakar Declaration on Education for All (2000). It is also preparing to ratify the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

There is separate legislation on the affairs of people with disabilities (1992) that stipulates that all individuals with disabilities (defined as intellectual disability, psychiatric illness, physical disability, blindness and/or deafness, as well as disabilities resulting from chronic illness and accidents) shall be helped to live and function in a normal community along with other people. For this purpose, where the needs of a person with disabilities are not covered by general services within the fields of education, health and social services, special services, as detailed in the law, shall be provided.

Act Number 61/2011 on the status of the Icelandic language and Icelandic sign language is available in English at: http://eng.menntamalaraduneyti.is/media/MRN-pdf/Icelandic-Language-Act-tr-260711.pdf

In January 2011, the main responsibility for special services for people with disabilities was transferred from the state to the local municipalities. This is a step toward mainstreaming services for persons with disabilities and integrating special services for people with disabilities with ordinary social services, which are the responsibility of the municipalities.

The Pre-School Act (2008) is available at: http://eng.menntamalaraduneyti.is/media/MRN-pdf/Preschool_Act.pdf

The Compulsory School Act (2008) is available at: http://eng.menntamalaraduneyti.is/media/MRN-PDF-Althjodlegt/Compulsory_school_Act.pdf

The Upper Secondary School Act (2008) is available at: http://eng.menntamalaraduneyti.is/media/MRN-PDF-Althjodlegt/Upper_secondary_school_Act.pdf

The Act on the Affairs of People with Disabilities (1992) is available at: http://eng.felagsmalaraduneyti.is/legislation/nr/3704

The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in Icelandic is available at: http://www.barnaheill.is/content/blogcategory/20/40/

The Dakar Declaration on Education for All is available at: http://bella.mrn.stjr.is/utgafur/Dakarskyrslensk.pdf

The Salamanca Statement is available at: http://www.menntamalaraduneyti.is/utgefid-efni/utgefin-rit-og-skyrslur/HTMLrit/nr/2123

Curricula

The Education for All policy emphasises the National Curriculum Guides for pre-school (2003), compulsory school (2007) and upper secondary school (2004). The Curriculum Guides ensure conformity of goals across all three levels of schooling. When drawing up the National Curriculum Guides, organising study and producing and selecting study materials, there were special efforts to ensure that the opportunities for study available to all learners are as equal as possible.

The objectives of study and instruction and the working practices of pre-school, compulsory schools and upper secondary schools are such as to prevent discrimination on the basis of origin, gender, residence, class, religion or disability. All school activities take into account learners’ varied personalities, talents, abilities, interests and levels of maturity.

The National Curriculum Guides for pre-schools emphasise that pre-schools must show consideration for each individual child’s needs to ensure that they can reach their potential in a peer group on their own terms. Special consideration must be given to children with any kind of disability or who have emotional and/or social difficulties. The child needs to receive special assistance to compensate for the limitations that their disability imposes upon them. The same applies to children who are deaf or have a hearing impairment and to children who are blind or visually impaired. The National Curriculum also emphasises that pre-schools will help children from other cultures to become active participants in their new society without losing their connections with their own culture, language and faith.

The new National Curriculum Guides for compulsory schools place emphasis on instruction in the fields of information and technology, which include, among other things, a special course on computer use, information technology, innovation and technology. Familiarity with computers and computer use are now considered important prerequisites for success in education and on the job. Moreover, use of this new technology increases learner interest in studying and the possibilities for self-instruction. Computer technology can also be beneficial for groups who are weak in certain areas or who have difficulties. All learners now have the opportunity to achieve basic competency in using and handling computers, data acquisition, processing and presenting information, as well as experience in various skills, such as word processing.

A National Curriculum Guide for special units in upper secondary schools was published in 2005. The special units have special curriculum guidelines to meet the needs of learners with disabilities. The programme these units offer lasts four years and has three different levels depending on the needs of different learners.

According to the Pre-School Act, Compulsory School Act and Upper Secondary School Act, each school is obliged to produce a working guide which is based on the National Curriculum Guides, but gives the school an opportunity to take its circumstances and special characteristics into account. The working guide is an administrative plan for each school. It accounts for the school year and includes an annual calendar, the organisation of teaching, the aims and content of the education offered, learner assessment procedures, assessment of the work that goes on in the school, extra-curricular activities and other aspects of the school’s operation, including how it is going to meet learners’ special needs.

The pre-school curriculum is available in English at: http://bella.mrn.stjr.is/utgafur/leikskensk.pdf

The general section of the compulsory school curriculum is available in English at: http://bella.mrn.stjr.is/utgafur/general.pdf

The life skills section of the compulsory school curriculum is available in English at: http://bella.mrn.stjr.is/utgafur/compuls.pdf

The general section of the upper secondary school curriculum is available in English at: http://bella.mrn.stjr.is/utgafur/almhluti_frhsk_enska.pdf

The life skills section of the upper secondary school curriculum is available in English at: http://bella.mrn.stjr.is/utgafur/upper.pdf

A National Curriculum Guide for special units in upper secondary schools in Icelandic is available at: http://bella.mrn.stjr.is/utgafur/starfsbrautir2005.pdf

The updated National Curriculum Guide contains the framework and conditions for learning and teaching, based on the principles of existing laws, regulations and international conventions. Six fundamental pillars have been developed within this framework and they form the essence of the educational policy. They include the working methods, content and learning environment at each school level and form important continuity in the Icelandic educational system. These pillars are literacy, sustainability, equality, creativity, health and welfare and democracy and human rights.

Pre-school

The National Curriculum Guide for Pre-Schools is based on the Pre-School Act Number 90, of 12 June 2008. Its content is based on the objectives of Article 2 of the Pre-School Act and it serves as a guide for work in pre-schools.

Compulsory school

The National Curriculum Guide is both a means to execute provisions of law and instructions from the educational authorities on school policy and a compilation of the common objectives for school activities in the whole country. The National Curriculum Guide co-ordinates education and teaching as far as necessary and ensures the right of all learners to a defined minimum education and their equal rights to study.

The National Curriculum Guide serves different parties. It describes the common objectives and requirements for all learners, teachers, school authorities and other school personnel. At the same time, it establishes criteria for standardised assessment in compulsory schools and evaluation of school activities and provides guidelines for those who produce study material or are engaged in teacher education. It is the basis for writing school curriculum guides and self-evaluation in schools and for policy-making by local authorities. The National Curriculum Guide also provides information and criteria for parents so they can follow the school activities, study progress and the welfare and well-being of the learners. Additionally, the National Curriculum Guide provides learners with diverse information about school activities.

Upper secondary school

The role of the upper secondary school is extensive. It encourages learners’ overall development and their active participation in democratic society by offering each of them an education that suits their individual requirements. Furthermore, it prepares learners for participation in the labour market and for further studies. Upper secondary schools thus offer learners a choice of a number of study programmes that provide varied preparation and rights regarding general education, artistic, academic and vocational studies. Corresponding diplomas are issued upon graduation from the different study programmes, such as the upper secondary school leaving certificate, vocational examination for professional rights, matriculation examination, master craftsman examination or other final examinations. Upper secondary school study programme descriptions are organised according to this diversity. They must fulfil the requirements of the labour market and the receiving school level, while also providing learners with overall general education.

More information is available from:

The Icelandic National Curriculum Guide for Pre-Schools, 2012: http://brunnur.stjr.is/mrn/utgafuskra/utgafa.nsf/RSSPage.xsp?documentId=CA2C880C51C8CE0D00257A230058FCA5&action=openDocument

The Icelandic National Curriculum Guide for Compulsory Schools, 2013: http://brunnur.stjr.is/mrn/utgafuskra/utgafa.nsf/RSSPage.xsp?documentId=E7DE015E63AA2F2C00257CA2005296F7&action=openDocument

The Icelandic National Curriculum Guide for Upper Secondary Schools, 2012: http://brunnur.stjr.is/mrn/utgafuskra/utgafa.nsf/RSSPage.xsp?documentId=2149C139F3FA145B00257A240035BA1B&action=openDocument\

The National Curriculum Guide for Compulsory Education

The National Curriculum Guide has the legal status of a ministerial regulation. It interprets the articles of the Compulsory School Act and further specifies what is to be co-ordinated in all Icelandic compulsory schools. Furthermore, the National Curriculum Guide sets out aspects regarding organisation, execution and evaluation of education for each school and its staff. The National Curriculum Guide applies to all grades and subjects in compulsory schools. Icelandic is the language of instruction in Iceland’s schools.

The National Curriculum Guide particularly emphasises that efforts be made to ensure that all learners have equal study opportunities and a chance to select subjects and learning approaches in their own education. The objectives and practice of study and instruction aim to prevent discrimination on the basis of origin, gender, sexual orientation, geographic location, social class, religion, health condition, disability or general situation. All school activities encourage a healthy lifestyle and take into account each individual learner’s varied personality, talents, abilities, interests and development.

The National Curriculum Guide lays down the main study and instruction objectives, the structure and organisation of study, as well as the division of time between instruction in different subjects and subject areas in compulsory schools. The National Curriculum Guide defines required learning outcomes within each subject area. Learners are allowed to fulfil the learning outcomes of particular subjects and subject areas in various ways. The National Curriculum Guide also defines learning outcomes and requirements for learners who complete individual subjects or subject areas and the requirements for learners who finish compulsory school in less than ten years.

The objective articles of the Pre-School, Compulsory School and Upper Secondary School Acts define the fundamental pillars of education. These fundamental pillars, in addition to the provisions of Article 24 of the Compulsory School Act, define the competences that learners should achieve at compulsory school.

The National Curriculum Guide, which is common to pre-school, compulsory school and upper secondary school education, defines the fundamental pillars of education in Iceland. They are as follows:

  • Literacy in the widest sense
  • Education towards sustainability
  • Equality
  • Creativity
  • Health and welfare
  • Democracy and human rights.

According to the 2011 Curriculum Guide, the fundamental pillars of education are divided into six categories, which are interrelated and interdependent in education and school activities. They provide a clear overview of educational work and are based on the idea that active democracy cannot be achieved without literacy of society’s diverse symbolism and communication systems. They are also based on the idea that active democracy can only flourish if every form of equality between individuals and groups in society is simultaneously supported. Human rights can only be ensured by supporting individual health and welfare and by fighting discrimination and all forms of violence, including bullying.

Sustainability concerns the interplay of the environment, economy, society and welfare. It includes respect for the environment, a sense of responsibility, health, democratic working methods and justice, not only at the present time but also for future generations. Therefore it is unthinkable to support human rights without simultaneously espousing sustainability and balanced social development. Additionally, sustainability is dependent on the equality of social groups. Democracy and human rights and health and welfare are thus an integral part of sustainability and, at the same time, independent fundamental pillars of education.

The fundamental pillars of education and the provisions of the Compulsory School Act form the guidelines for general education and work methods in compulsory schools. They appear in the content of subjects and subject areas in the National Curriculum Guide, the learners’ competence, study assessment, school curriculum guide and the internal evaluation of schools.

According to Article 24 of the Compulsory School Act, certain aspects of learning and teaching must be emphasised. These aspects further develop the Act’s objective article and the fundamental pillars of education in Iceland. What most of them have in common is that they are not confined to specific subjects or school activities, but are to be general guidelines for all compulsory school education, both formal and informal, and all school activities. Among other things, Article 24 emphasises the following:

  • Self-consciousness
  • Ethical consciousness
  • Social awareness and civil consciousness
  • Social competence
  • Physical and mental welfare
  • Competence in the Icelandic language
  • Learners’ reasoning and critical thinking
  • Balance between academic and practical education
  • Play integrated into every subject and learning area in a varied learning and working environment and in extra-curricular activities
  • Preparing both sexes equally for active participation in society
  • Learners should be prepared for further studies and employment through systematic vocational and study guidance.

Article 2 of the Compulsory School Act emphasises that the compulsory school’s main objective is to encourage the general development of all learners. This means that education is based on each learner’s capabilities and takes place within an encouraging study environment where learners feel safe and able to apply their talents.

Compulsory school education takes into account each individual learner’s development, personality, talent, abilities and interests. This serves as the foundation for organising all school activities and teaching. It requires that teachers make an effort to get to know all the learners they teach, evaluate their situation with regard to their studies and consult with both the learners and their parents about the objectives to be set each time. Parents should be encouraged to follow their children’s study progress.

Equal study opportunities

The 2011 National Curriculum Guide for Compulsory Education states that, at compulsory school, all learners are entitled to appropriate education. Learners should have equal opportunities, regardless of their abilities or circumstances. Therefore there must be special efforts to prevent discrimination on the basis of whether the learner is of Icelandic or foreign origin. Opportunities must not depend on whether learners are boys or girls, where they live, what class they belong to, their sexual orientation, their health, whether they have disabilities or other circumstances.

Inclusive school

At compulsory school level, all learners have the right to compulsory education in common inclusive schools which all children are entitled to attend. An inclusive school means a compulsory school in the learners’ municipality or local community, where each learner’s educational and social requirements are met, with an emphasis on respect for human values and social justice. In inclusive schools, everyone has equal or equivalent study opportunities and the education is appropriate for each individual. The attitude of the inclusive school is characterised by respect for the rights of all learners to participate in the learning community of the local school, regardless of their attainment or status. This basic principle in school operations in Iceland involves universal involvement, access and participation of every learner in school activities. Inclusive education is a continuous process that aims to offer a good education for everyone. There is respect for the learners’ diversity and their different needs, abilities and characteristics. There are efforts to eliminate all forms of discrimination and segregation at school.

Compulsory school learners are a diverse group and their needs are varied. Local authorities must ensure that children of compulsory school age, who are legal residents of the municipality, and children who have been placed in foster care with foster parents residing in the municipality receive special support, according to evaluation of their special needs. Learners with special needs are defined as those who have difficulties studying because of specialised study problems, emotional or social problems and/or disabilities, dyslexic learners, learners suffering from long-term illnesses, developmental disorders, mental disorders and other learners with health-related special needs. Gifted learners and learners with special talents in particular fields are also entitled to appropriate study opportunities. They should be given the opportunity to develop their special abilities and to put their time to good use by attempting additional and more complex objectives and more demanding and meaningful study based on their own capabilities. If parents and school specialists believe that a learner’s special situation is such that it is in their best interests to attend a specialised school, the parents can request that their child be admitted to a specialised school temporarily or permanently. In this situation, any decision must take into consideration the learner’s general welfare.

School curriculum guide

Under the Compulsory School Act, the staff of each school are obliged to draft their own school curriculum guide and an operational plan. The head teacher is responsible for implementing these plans and designs them in consultation with teachers. The school curriculum guide is a more detailed version of the National Curriculum Guide, as regards objectives, content and assessment of studies, operational methods and evaluation and quality control of school activities. The school curriculum guide takes into consideration the compulsory school’s culture, characteristics and circumstances. It is revised regularly. The annual operational plan provides information on the school calendar, including learners’ study schedule, school rules, support services, duration of the Christmas, Easter and other school holidays, extra-curricular and social activities and school activities each year. The school’s annual operational plan is submitted to the School Board for approval, which confirms its entry into force, provided that it has been devised in accordance with the law, regulations, the National Curriculum Guide, collective bargaining agreements and local authorities’ decisions regarding school activities. The head teacher is responsible for the implementation of these provisions and for their discussion within the school and in the School Council and for presenting the results of the operational plan to the School Board. All parties within the school community have access to the operational plan and school curriculum guide.

Learners in all compulsory schools have the opportunity to participate in extra-curricular and social activities. Extra-curricular and social activities may be organised as part of daily school activities or outside normal school hours. The local authorities may also offer compulsory school learners extended stay, outside of daily teaching hours.

Pre-school education

According to the 2008 Pre-School Act, pre-school age children who, because of a disability or emotional or social difficulties, need specialist assistance or training are provided with such support, according to certain rules, in their own pre-school. All learners receive regular check-ups to monitor their health and development.

Chapter 8 of the Act deals with the right of pre-school children to specialist assistance, training and counselling services. Article 22 specifies that learners who, due to disabilities or emotional or social difficulties, need specialist assistance and training, shall have the right to receive these in the pre-schools under the guidance of specialists. Pre-schools shall also be designed and run in such a way as to be able to cater for children with disabilities.

The pre-school specialist services provide the children’s parents and the pre-school staff with the necessary guidance and services in accordance with the further provisions of the regulations on the scope of the service. The pre-school specialist service may be operated jointly with the compulsory school specialist service.

The Act is available in English at: http://eng.menntamalaraduneyti.is/media/MRN-pdf/Preschool_Act.pdf

Compulsory school education

The most important legislation relating to the provision of special education is the 2008 Compulsory School Act. The Act stipulates ten years of compulsory schooling for children and adolescents between the ages of six and sixteen. The term ‘special education’ is, however, nowhere to be found in the law. The ideology is that the compulsory ‘basic school’ shall be inclusive, catering for special educational needs as well as learners’ other educational needs. Since 1 August 1996, all compulsory schools, including special schools and units, have been run by local municipalities.

Article 17 of the Act specifies that children and adolescents who require special education because of specific learning difficulties or because they have emotional or social problems and/or disabilities have a right to special support in instruction in their studies. The main policy is that such instruction should take place in their local school. If a learner’s parents or guardians, teachers or other specialists feel that the learner is not receiving suitable instruction in their local school, the parents or guardians may apply for the learner to attend a special school. The instruction can be on a one-to-one basis or take place in a group within or outside the mainstream classroom, in special departments within schools or in special schools.

Regulation on learners with special needs in compulsory schools

The regulation on learners with special needs in compulsory schools (number 585, from 2010), applies to learners who need special educational support in accordance with assessed needs. This regulation’s main focus is on learner equality in education.

The regulation aims to ensure that learners:

  • have equal opportunities for both education and active participation in inclusive primary schools so their educational, physical, social and emotional needs are met;
  • receive diverse training suitable for a motivating learning environment and appropriate accommodation that takes into account their needs and status;
  • can develop their personality, talents and creativity, as well as mental and physical abilities and be socially active members of the school community, based on their strengths;
  • have equal opportunities in schools in accordance with the international agreement on the rights of children and people with disabilities.

This regulation is beneficial for learners with special needs. It ensures that they have the same rights to equal educational opportunities as other learners. However, this will be costly for the municipalities.

More information is available on: http://www.reglugerd.is/interpro/dkm/WebGuard.nsf/key2/585-2010

Regulation on municipality professional services to the local pre-school and compulsory schools and on learner protection councils in primary schools

The regulation on municipality professional services to the local pre-school and compulsory schools and on learner protection councils in primary schools (number 585, from 2010) focuses on professional services by the municipalities to support learners in pre-schools and compulsory schools and their parents and to support the schools’ activity and the staff.

The aim of the municipalities’ professional services is to utilise pedagogical, psychological, developmental and sociological knowledge in schools.

Professional services should be aimed at promoting schools as professional organisations that can solve most of the challenges that arise in schools and provide the school personnel with guidance and assistance to their work as appropriate.

More information can be found on: http://www.reglugerd.is/interpro/dkm/WebGuard.nsf/key2/584-2010

Specialist services in compulsory schools

The municipalities’ specialist services for compulsory schools aim to further compulsory schools as professional institutions which can solve most problems that occur in school activities and to give school personnel appropriate guidance and assistance in their work. Specialist services involve support for school operations and school personnel with the learners’ interests in mind. They also aim to support compulsory school learners and their parents. The objective of the specialist services is to provide pedagogical, psychological, developmental and sociological knowledge to the advantage of the schools. When implementing specialist services, municipalities should emphasise preventive measures in order to systematically enhance learners’ general welfare and avert difficulties. Early evaluation of a learner’s status, followed by counselling, is an important response to educational, social or psychological difficulties so that it is subsequently possible to organise education and assistance in a manner appropriate for each learner and in co-operation with the inclusive school’s staff.

Specialist services are based on a comprehensive overview of the learner’s circumstances and interests, irrespective of the specialist’s profession. Thus learner welfare should always be the determinant.

By means of counselling and education, the specialist services should support school activities and practice and school personnel and parents in various ways. Appropriate interpretation services are necessary to ensure that information and counselling are of use to parents and learners; therefore good access to such services is essential.

Laws on pre-school, compulsory school and upper secondary school emphasise continuity in education. Therefore, when implementing specialist services it is important to emphasise sound continuity, marked by systematic dissemination of information about the learners’ status and circumstances when they transfer from one school level to the next. Discontinuity in education when transferring is to be avoided. Attention must be paid to provisions of law concerning the exchange of information when transferring between school levels.

The municipalities are also obliged to offer education for children who are in hospital or are ill for a long period.

The Act is available in in English at: http://eng.menntamalaraduneyti.is/media/MRN-PDF-Althjodlegt/Compulsory_school_Act.pdf

Regulation on the schooling of foster children in compulsory schools

The regulation on the schooling of foster children in compulsory schools (number 547, from 2012) applies to the obligations of local authorities and their interactions in relation to children of school age, which child welfare authorities have placed in temporary foster care outside their municipality.

This regulation was established in order to ensure the schooling of foster children in the municipality where they are staying. It also ensures effective procedures, unhindered communication and good co-operation between the municipalities regarding the professional and financial issues relating to the education of the children covered by the regulation.

More information is available from: http://www.reglugerd.is/interpro/dkm/WebGuard.nsf/key2/547-2012

Upper secondary school education

According to the Upper Secondary School Act of 2008, everyone is entitled to upper secondary education. Learners with disabilities (as defined in the Act on the Affairs of People with Disabilities) are to be provided with instruction and special support in their studies. Specialist advice and suitable conditions must be ensured. In their studies, learners with disabilities are to follow the mainstream curriculum with other learners as far as possible. The law also provides for the possibility of establishing special units within upper secondary schools for learners with disabilities.

The Upper Secondary School Act stipulates that deaf learners have the right to special instruction in Icelandic sign language. The law is available in English at: http://eng.menntamalaraduneyti.is/Acts/

Regulation on learners with special needs in upper secondary schools

The regulation on learners with special needs in upper secondary schools (number 230, from 2012) applies to learners at upper secondary school level who are eligible for special educational support in accordance with assessed needs. The regulation applies to all learners who have been enrolled according to Article 32 of the Upper Secondary School Act 92/2008, regardless of whether the school is public or private.

The regulation aims to ensure that learners:

  • have equal opportunities for both education and active participation in inclusive primary schools so their educational, physical, social and emotional needs are met;
  • receive diverse training suitable for a motivating learning environment and appropriate accommodation that takes into account their needs and status;
  • can develop their personality, talents and creativity, as well as mental and physical abilities and be socially active members of the school community, based on their strengths;
  • are prepared by appropriate means to live independently and to participate in the job market and further education;
  • have equal opportunities in schools in accordance with the international agreement on the rights of children and people with disabilities.

This regulation is beneficial for learners with special needs. It ensures that they have the same rights to equal educational opportunities as other learners. However, this will be costly for the municipalities.

More information is available on: http://www.reglugerd.is/interpro/dkm/WebGuard.nsf/key2/230-2012

Higher education

As with the other school levels, there is no law that deals with students with special needs or disabilities in higher education. There is, however, a regulation dealing with this at the University of Iceland (number 497/2002). At the university, students can apply for special study circumstances and special examination procedures, which the university provides through its counselling service.

Policy for the Reykjavik area

Reykjavik’s policy on inclusive education, 2012

This is a local level policy. Inclusive education is based on acceptance and participation of all learners. The curriculum applies to all learners and the school environment is characterised by diversity. All learners are respected and achieve their best performance. Inclusive education is a process under constant development and support is available to learners as needed.

More information is available from: http://www.reykjavik.is/Portaldata/1/Resources/skola_og_fristundasvid/skjol/Stefna-skolianadgreiningar.pdf

References

Act on the Affairs of People with Disabilities, Number 59/1992

Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, 1994. SALAMANCA-YFIRLÝSINGIN og RAMMAÁÆTLUN UM AÐGERÐIR vegna nemenda með sérþarfir. Alþjóðlega ráðstefna um menntun nemenda með sérþarfir. Salamanca, Spáni, 7.-10. júní 1994. Reykjavik: Ministry of Education, Science and Culture

Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, 2002. Education for All: Declaration adopted by the World Education Forum in Dakar, 2000. Iceland: Committee Report. Reykjavik: Ministry of Education, Science and Culture

Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, 2003. The National Curriculum Guide for Pre-Schools. Reykjavik: Ministry of Education, Science and Culture

Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, 2004. The Icelandic National Curriculum Guide for Compulsory Schools. General Section. Reykjavik: Ministry of Education, Science and Culture

Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, 2004. National Curriculum Guide for Compulsory School. Life Skills. Reykjavik: Ministry of Education, Science and Culture

Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, 2004. The Icelandic National Curriculum Guide for Upper Secondary Schools. General Section. Reykjavik: Ministry of Education, Science and Culture

Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, 2004. The Icelandic National Curriculum Guide for Upper Secondary Schools. Special Units. Reykjavik: Ministry of Education, Science and Culture

The Pre-School Act, Number 90/2008

The Compulsory School Act, Number 91/2008

The Upper Secondary School Act, Number 92/2008

Last modified Mar 26, 2014

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