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Learning and teaching - Hungary

Pedagogical assessment and improving teaching methods

Effectiveness of inclusive education of pupils with special education needs mainly depends on the applied elements of the pedagogical methodological culture. Pedagogical culture is renewed in learning-teaching strategies, methods, instruments, procedures of organising learning. Inclusion is accomplished in empathy towards children, a change of attitudes, integrated approach, applying differentiated pedagogical methods that take into account the personality of the pupil as well, diagnostic approach, procedures of organising learning and everyday use of the culture of differentiated education. 

Inclusive practice cannot go without disability specific methodological procedures.

In inclusive education the host institution is given an active role. In the teaching-learning process the individual development of all pupils in the class is emphasised, taking into account the special needs, pace of work and abilities of each pupil.  Instead of relating information and checking the development of learning skills are in the foreground. A child different from others can more easily be included in a class which is seen as a community of individuals as school work is designed not for average pupils.   

The National Core Curriculum assigns standards not to certain grades but to a wide time interval. Therefore pupils, at whatever level they may be, are given tasks at the appropriate level of requirement. Individual development plans for all pupils that need them are being more and more appreciated. 

Textbooks, task sheets, tests and activity systems assigned to given development levels are not available for teachers; they are being developed by the teachers of the host institution in co-operation with special teachers of special education institutions. 

Research data prove that in the best host institutions there is univocal commitment in the institutional practice, teachers’ approach to their role has changed, teacher competencies have enriched. Teachers of host institutions regard as important:

  • To create, activate the (personal, community) motivation basis for educational development
  • To find individual methods, techniques suitable for differentiated teaching and development of pupils with special education needs.
  • To design and run classes with the participation of pupils with particular disabilities.
  • To interpret pupil diagnoses from pedagogical aspects and to find development procedures in view of them.
  • To give alternative solutions for a given teaching educational problem and to manage classes in an effective and efficient way.
  • To be able to stay in the background and to encourage pupil activities.
  • To be able to co-operate with parents, social partners, other professionals.   

Initial and in-service teacher training

The central programme plan of the 2.1 measure of the Human Resource Development Operative Programme of the National Development Plan Creating equal opportunities for pupils of disadvantaged background refers mainly to the initial training of professionals involved in the teaching of pupils from a disadvantaged background, mainly of Roma children and pupils with special education needs and to developing teaching packages connected to inclusive education. 

The main objective of the development programme facilitating the equal opportunities of pupils with special education needs is that following the expansion of inclusive education children could learn in schools which are suitable for inclusion by the force of their operation, where the organisational and content frames of inclusion as well as the conditions necessary for satisfying the educational needs of all children have been created. To achieve this, a support system has to be created, which will facilitate the development of the pedagogical systems of the institutions, teacher training, adaptation of programme packages and the change of attitudes of the inclusive and the outside environments.  

The package of measures designed for assuring equal opportunities for pupils with special education needs provides support for institutions undertaking the inclusive education of pupils with special education needs through competitions and central programmes. 

Developments to be realised in the framework of the central programme enhance the creation and renewal of a pedagogical support system that provide support for institutions at the level of the concrete pedagogical practice and activity. As a result of this programme package, the conditions of a well functioning integration will be developed.

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