Country information for Hungary - Financing of inclusive education systems
Public education institutions may be established and operated by the state, minority self-governments and churches registered in Hungary, and other organisations (non-government organisations – NGOs) or persons on condition that they have obtained the right to conduct such activity, as laid down by statutory provisions. Kindergartens may also be established and operated by local governments.
In public educational institutions which are maintained and operated by the state and the local governments (as well as by minority self-governments), the following are free for every learner:
- Kindergarten education
- Compulsory primary education
- Secondary education, until obtaining the secondary school-leaving certificate as well as the training for the first (and, under certain conditions, for the second) vocational qualification
- Pedagogical assistance services
- Halls of residence
In addition, in all cases (not just for the first and the second vocational qualification) vocational training is free for disadvantaged learners and learners with SEN.
The ‘state-maintained institutions’ budgets are part of the central state budget (shared among the ‘educational districts’).
According to the annual budgetary act, the minority self-governments, churches, other organisations (NGOs) and local governments get subvention from the central state budget to operate educational institutions. The amount of the subvention depends on the number of learners. When calculating the number of learners:
- each learner with mild intellectual disability, psychic development impairments or speech disorder shall be considered as two learners;
- each learner with sensory or locomotor impairments, moderate intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders or multiple disabilities shall be considered as three learners.
The operator ensures coverage for the extra services and number of learners they authorise. The annual budget act determines the budgetary allocation earmarked for providing core educational activities. The amount of budgetary funding covers the remuneration and salary – including taxes and contributions – paid to teachers and employees directly involved in providing educational activities required for operating the educational institution.
The budgets of institutions which are operated by churches and NGOs are complemented by fees and service fees paid by the learners, as well as tuition fees in the case of institutions authorised to charge tuition in accordance with the regulations governing the Act on Public Education.
Last updated 25/03/2021