The EASIE data collection covers all recognised forms of education at ISCED levels 02, 1, 2 and 3.
This means any type of education organised by or approved by any recognised educational provider in the public or private sector: municipality, local or regional educational provider from the public or private sector, working with/for ministries responsible for education and areas such as health, social, welfare, labour, justice, etc.
What are the typical age ranges for the ISCED levels?
|ISCED LEVEL 02||ISCED LEVEL 1||ISCED LEVEL 2||ISCED LEVEL 3|
|3–6||7–10 (grades I–IV)||11–14 (grades V–VIII)||15–18|
‘Non-public schools are institutions established and administered by legal or natural persons upon entry into the register of non-public schools and other educational institutions kept by the relevant local government unit. A non-public school implements the national core curriculum for general education and conducts compulsory classes in accordance with the same rules as public schools. It also applies the rules for the assessment and promotion of learners / students and employs teachers who hold required qualifications as laid down by the minister responsible for school education.
The right to establish and operate non-public schools is guaranteed by Konstytucja Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej (Constitution of the Republic of Poland) (Article 70, section 3). Both public and non-public schools are supervised by the State with regard to the quality of education and the compliance of their activities with national legislation, though supervision is more extensive in the case of public schools than non-public schools. The main differences between public and non-public schools are that the former provide tuition-free education and ensure open access, in particular, to primary schools. The State guarantees that the outcomes of the education process are recognised across the country and learners / students can automatically move on to other public schools or non-public schools with a similar status’ (Eurydice).
‘The minister responsible for culture and protection of national heritage (currently, the Minister of Culture, National Heritage and Sport) establishes and administers public art schools and other institutions for students of art schools, as well as institutions for in-service training of art school teachers. In consultation with the minister responsible for school education, the Minister issues regulations concerning the organisation of art education and the functioning of art schools.
The minister responsible for agriculture (the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development) may establish and administer public schools of agriculture and agricultural institutions operating at regional and supra-regional levels, and establish and administer public in-service teacher training institutions for teachers of vocational subjects taught in schools of agriculture.
The minister responsible for environmental protection (the Minister of Climate and Environment) may establish and administer public forestry schools.
The minister responsible for maritime economy (the Minister of Infrastructure) may establish and administer public maritime schools.
The minister responsible for inland waterway transport (the Minister of Infrastructure) may establish and administer public schools of inland waterway transport.
The minister responsible for fishery (the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development) may establish and administer public fishery schools.
The minister responsible for health (the Minister of Health) may establish and administer a public national-level in-service teacher training institution for teachers of vocational subjects taught as part of the training for the occupations which fall within the remit of the minister according to the Classification of occupations for vocational education.
The Minister of Justice may establish and administer public schools and institutions within youth detention centres and hostels for underage young people and public schools and institutions in penitentiary facilities and custody suites. Schools and institutions in penitentiary facilities and custody suites operate as part of their structures.
The legislation also reserves some powers with regard to administering schools for the Minister of National Defence and the minister in charge of internal affairs (the Minister of Interior)’ (Eurydice).
Compulsory schooling outside school: Ustawa – Prawo oświatowe (Law on School Education) of 14 December 2016 (Article 37) states that children can participate in one-year compulsory pre-school preparation, full-time and part-time compulsory education outside of an educational institution, that is, at home where they are taught by their parents. Home-based education as a form of full- or part-time compulsory education can be provided based on a permit from the head of the relevant educational institution (nursery school, primary or post-primary school). A permit is issued at the parents’ request.
‘Rehabilitation and education’ classes: Children and young people with a severe intellectual disability attend compulsory one-year pre-school preparatory classes and participate in full-time and part-time compulsory education in the form of ‘rehabilitation and education’ classes/activities. Such classes or activities are conducted in a group or on an individual basis. They may also be conducted in mainstream nursery schools and schools, but not as part of integrated education for disabled and non-disabled peers together.
In the EASIE data collection, an inclusive setting is operationally defined as:
A recognised form of education where the child/learner follows education in mainstream classes alongside their peers for the largest part – 80% or more – of the school week.
The 80% time placement benchmark clearly indicates that a child/learner is educated in a mainstream class for the majority of their school week. At the same time, it acknowledges possibilities for small group or one-to-one withdrawal for limited periods of time (i.e. 20% or one day a week).
Very few participating countries can provide exact data on children/learners spending 80% of their time in a mainstream group/class. However, all countries can apply one of three agreed proxies that provide an approximation to this benchmark:
- Placement in a mainstream class implies over 80% or more
- Data is available on the number of hours of support allocated to a child/learner
- Placement in a mainstream class implies over 50% or more.
In the EASIE data collection, the agreed operational definition is:
An official decision leads to a child/learner being recognised as eligible for additional educational support to meet their learning needs.
Countries may have different types of official decision, but for all official decisions:
- There has been some form of educational assessment procedure involving different people. This procedure may involve the child/learner, parents, school-based team members, as well as professionals from multi-disciplinary teams from outside the child’s/learner’s (pre-)school.
- There is some form of legal document (plan/programme, etc.) that describes the support the child/learner is eligible to receive, which is used as the basis for decision-making.
- There is some form of regular review process of the child/learner’s needs, progress and support.
A decision on the need for special education (orzeczenie o potrzebie kształcenia specjalnego) for learners with disability (mild, moderate or severe intellectual disability, deaf and hearing impairment, blind and with visual impairment, with a motor disability, including aphasia, with autism, including Asperger’s syndrome, with multiple disabilities), social maladjustment or at risk of social maladjustment.
A decision on a need for ‘rehabilitation and education’ classes (orzeczenie o potrzebie zajęć rewalidacyjno-wychowawczych) only for learners with profound intellectual disability.
A Guidance and Counselling Centre issues a decision on the need for special education or ‘rehabilitation and education’ classes following a specialist diagnosis of SEN, which is conducted to gain a qualitative and quantitative profile of the child/learner. Consequently, information on the following aspects is important: intellectual capabilities, learning strategies, perception and the process of perception, social relationships, communication, and individual and educational circumstances in life.
The multi-disciplinary team only includes members external to the child’s/learner’s school. The team comprises the Guidance and Counselling Centre manager or person authorised thereby as the team leader, a psychologist, an educator and a physician. The team may include other specialists if their input to the team’s work is essential.
Schools and centres develop individual educational and therapeutic programmes for children/learners with disabilities, social maladjustment or at risk of social maladjustment on the basis of which education and fostering of these children/learners is carried out. A team of specialists draws up a programme following a multi-disciplinary assessment of the child’s/learner’s level of functioning.
For a learner with profound intellectual disability an individual ‘rehabilitation and education’ programme is developed by teachers in co-operation with a psychologist and, depending on needs, with other specialists working with a learner, on the basis of a diagnosis and recommendations included in a decision and observation of the learner’s functioning.
A learner with a decision on the need for special education: The team of teachers, a class or group tutor and specialists working with a learner participating in special education meets to discuss the learner’s progress. The frequency of meetings depends on the needs, but they are held at least twice in a school year. The team conducts a periodic multifaceted specialist assessment of the learner’s functioning/performance.
The multifaceted specialist assessment of the learner’s functioning:
- is conducted before an individual educational and therapeutic programme is developed for the learner;
- is conducted as often as necessary, and at least twice in a school year;
- may also be conducted at the request of the learner’s parents or the adult learner concerned;
- may involve, where necessary, staff of a counselling and guidance centre, including a specialised centre;
- provides the basis for any necessary adjustments to the individual educational and therapeutic programme.
The assessment takes into consideration the following elements:
- individual developmental and educational needs, strengths, predispositions, interests and aptitudes or talents of the learner;
- the scope and nature of support to be provided by teachers, specialists, teaching assistants or teacher support staff;
- reasons behind academic failures or difficulties in the learner’s functioning, including barriers and constraints which make it difficult for the learner to function and participate in the life of the (pre-)school;
- for the learner taking selected pre-school education classes or school classes/activities on an individual basis or in a group of up to 5 learners: additionally, the learner’s difficulties in participating in classes/activities conducted together with a pre-school or school class or group; and outcomes of measures taken to address such difficulties.
A learner with profound intellectual disability who participates in a rehabilitation and education class: At least twice a school year, on the basis of the documentation of the classes, including the individual programme of classes, teachers conducting classes perform periodical evaluation of the participant’s functioning and, if necessary, modify the individual programme of classes.
Within the EASIE data collection, specific questions examine children/learners who are out of education. This means children/learners who should, by law, be in some form of recognised education, but who are out of any form of recognised education. A recognised form of education is any type of education organised by or approved by any recognised educational provider in the public or private sector.
Being out of formal education means that the child is not in any of the forms of educational provision mentioned below:
Education is compulsory from the age of 6 until the age of 18. One-year compulsory pre-primary education and full-time compulsory education (to be received in public or non-public pre-primary institutions and schools) covers children and young people aged 6 to 16 years, whereas part-time compulsory education (to be received either in school or non-school settings) concerns young people aged 16 to 18 years. Full-time compulsory education includes the final year of pre-primary education and eight years of primary education.
Children/learners with severe intellectual disabilities fulfil their compulsory education through individual or group rehabilitation and educational activities. Children/learners with multiple disabilities (including intellectual disabilities) or with severe intellectual disabilities can be educated in rehabilitation and education centres. They are still assigned to a class in their registry schools (except for those with severe intellectual disabilities).