The EASIE data collection covers all recognised forms of education at ISCED levels 02, 1, 2 and 3.
This means any type of education organised by or approved by any recognised educational provider in the public or private sector: municipality, local or regional educational provider from the public or private sector, working with/for ministries responsible for education and areas such as health, social, welfare, labour, justice, etc.
What are the typical age ranges for the ISCED levels?
|ISCED LEVEL 02||ISCED LEVEL 1||ISCED LEVEL 2||ISCED LEVEL 3|
In the EASIE data collection, an inclusive setting is operationally defined as:
A recognised form of education where the child/learner follows education in mainstream classes alongside their peers for the largest part – 80% or more – of the school week.
The 80% time placement benchmark clearly indicates that a child/learner is educated in a mainstream class for the majority of their school week. At the same time, it acknowledges possibilities for small group or one-to-one withdrawal for limited periods of time (i.e. 20% or one day a week).
Very few participating countries can provide exact data on children/learners spending 80% of their time in a mainstream group/class. However, all countries can apply one of three agreed proxies that provide an approximation to this benchmark:
- Placement in a mainstream class implies over 80% or more
- Data is available on the number of hours of support allocated to a child/learner
- Placement in a mainstream class implies over 50% or more.
In the EASIE data collection, the agreed operational definition is:
An official decision leads to a child/learner being recognised as eligible for additional educational support to meet their learning needs.
Countries may have different types of official decision, but for all official decisions:
- There has been some form of educational assessment procedure involving different people. This procedure may involve the child/learner, parents, school-based team members, as well as professionals from multi-disciplinary teams from outside the child’s/learner’s (pre-)school.
- There is some form of legal document (plan/programme, etc.) that describes the support the child/learner is eligible to receive, which is used as the basis for decision-making.
- There is some form of regular review process of the child/learner’s needs, progress and support.
For a child or a student who needs additional educational support due to social deprivation, developmental difficulties, disabilities, learning difficulties, risk of drop out, or other reasons, the institution undertakes measures to adjust the schooling conditions by removing physical or communicational barriers, adapting the educational programme and methods, and preparing an Individual Education Plan. This process includes continuous assessment and monitoring, and involves the child’s or student’s parents, (pre-)school members, and external professionals.
Prior to enrolling in a pre-primary institution, children undergo a physical examination by a paediatrician, who can request additional examinations if needed and who considers the child’s development history. Prior to entering primary education, children’s psychological functioning is also assessed.
If findings at either of these two stages indicate a need for additional support, institutions start collecting additional data. This process involves the child in question, peers, parents and other family members, teachers, psychologists, pedagogues, and a medical doctor if needed. Techniques used in this process include interviews, observations, standardised tests, portfolios and questionnaires. Based on the results, institutions formulate a document called a pedagogical profile, which is an official basis for planning support, i.e. an individual education plan (IEP).
A body external to an institution must be included if there are indications that a child needs:
- an IEP with modified outcomes;
- to be enrolled in a special education institution;
- support in the domains of healthcare and social services;
- financial support for education.
This external body is called an inter-sectoral commission (ISC) and it assesses whether a child needs additional educational, healthcare or social services support. Each ISC member collects data on the child in order to assess their needs in the member’s respective domain. Members do this by interviewing the child and their family, by using instruments to assess relevant aspects of functioning in a given domain, and by inspecting other results and findings from other relevant institutions if these are available.
The multidisciplinary team comprises, at the school level, parents/caregivers, the child’s/learner’s class teacher, a pedagogical assistant, a psychologist, a pedagogue and on occasion, an expert external to the institution suggested by the parents/caregivers.
The ISC is established by and for each municipality. It consists of five members, four of them long-term members, and one temporary member in charge of just one specific case. The long-term members are:
- a representative of the healthcare sector, i.e. a medical doctor;
- a representative of the educational sector, i.e. a psychologist;
- a representative of the social services sector;
- a special educator.
The fifth member is a person who is very familiar with the child’s/learner’s development. This person is chosen at the parents’ suggestion from medical doctors, social workers, teachers or other education workers involved in a child’s/learner’s case.
The pedagogical profile is the basis for planning support in an institution. It consists of four domains:
- Social skills
- Communication skills
- Independence and self-care.
The pedagogical profile outlines assets and support needs. It also states sources of support that a child/learner already has in their social environment. It consists of:
- personal data on the child/learner;
- an assessment methodology review: a description of inventories, questionnaires and tests used;
- a description of the child’s/learner’s functional status;
- identified barriers;
- needed means of support;
- an individualised plan for supporting the child/learner;
- a timeline.
An individualisation plan specifies measures for removing physical and communicational barriers and for providing aspects of support that a child/learner needs. This document defines specific means of support for each school subject and other areas based on support needs and assets defined in the pedagogical profile.
The IEP alters a curriculum on the basis of assets and support needs defined in the pedagogical profile. The IEP defines:
- a schedule of activities;
- education outcomes;
- an individualised programme for each subject;
- individualised teaching methods.
The action plan is a part of the IEP that operationalises precise contents, methods, techniques, materials, responsible persons, timing and outcomes for each step in the process of giving additional support.
Within an institution, a team for support provision reviews the process of meeting goals and outcomes envisioned in the IEP. The review process is undertaken every three months in the first year, and subsequently at the beginning of each semester. During this process, the team analyses what means of support were successful and what outcomes the child/learner has accomplished. On the basis of this analysis, a revision of the IEP may be undertaken.
There is also an external reviewer, an educational advisor, who monitors the regularity of the process of the IEP development, its content and realisation. When the ISC is involved, each member monitors the support within their area. Providers of support are obliged to report to the ISC members on the realisation of the support plan six months after its development. In case of changes in the child’s/learner’s functioning, the assessment process is repeated.
Within the EASIE data collection, specific questions examine children/learners who are out of education. This means children/learners who should, by law, be in some form of recognised education, but who are out of any form of recognised education. A recognised form of education is any type of education organised by or approved by any recognised educational provider in the public or private sector.
Children of formal education age who are not enrolled in any formal education institution in a given academic year are considered out of education. In elementary education, children can be enrolled in a school (if they were enrolled in the previous academic year) but don’t attend it. Because of this, in elementary education, out-of-education children are also those who have been, at the end of an academic year, unjustifiably and continuously absent for more than two weeks.