Country information for Spain - Assessment within inclusive education systems

As with the Organic Act on Education (LOE), the Act on the Improvement of the Quality of Education (LOMCE, 2013) focuses attention on learners with specific educational support needs. This concept covers learners who require additional educational support because of special educational needs, specific learning difficulties, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, high intellectual capacity, late entry to the education system or due to personal circumstances or past school records.

The LOMCE (2013) regulates and governs special education within general education and asserts the incorporation of special education into the mainstream system. It also highlights the concept of special educational needs (SEN). Pupils with SEN can attend mainstream or special schools. This Act also establishes that pupils with SEN should attend mainstream schools and programmes, by adapting such programmes to each pupil’s individual capacities. Their schooling in special education units or establishments, or combined schooling, will only take place when pupils’ needs cannot be met in mainstream schools. This situation will be periodically revised in order to promote, if possible, increased inclusion.

According to the LOMCE (2013), special education is understood as a combination of material and human resources available to the education system to meet the needs (whether temporary or permanent) that pupils may have. In this sense, the education system must have the necessary resources so that pupils with special educational needs may achieve the general goals set for all pupils. The principle of normalisation, with the aim of promoting school inclusion, underlies this Act and the Organic Act on Education.

The LOMCE stipulates that, in the case of pupils with special educational needs, the identification and evaluation of their needs will be carried out, as early as possible, by teams of professionals with different qualifications, and in the way education administrative authorities determine. These professionals will establish performance plans with regard to each pupil’s educational needs. At the end of each year, the evaluation team will assess the extent to which the objectives set out in the plan have been achieved. This will facilitate the introduction of the necessary adaptations and changes in the intervention plans, including the most suitable type of schooling according to learners’ educational needs, so as to facilitate, whenever possible, their access to a better inclusive system.

The education administrative authorities are responsible for the early childhood schooling of children with SEN and the development of programmes to facilitate schooling in primary and compulsory secondary education mainstream schools.

The education administrative authorities are also responsible for the schooling of learners with SEN after compulsory education, and for making the necessary adaptations of the exams, as stated by law, when required.


Last updated 08/04/2020

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