The issue of learners who are out-of-school and not in any form of education was identified as a priority for investigation within the context of the European Agency Statistics on Inclusive Education (EASIE) work. Three main questions guided activities to explore the issue with the EASIE data experts during 2019–2020:
- What does the concept of ‘out-of-school’ mean?
- Who are out-of-school learners and what situations are they in?
- What data on out-of-school learners is being collected and could be collected?
This Conceptual Working Paper is the main output of this work. It underpins developments related to data collection on out-of-school learners within the EASIE work from 2020 onwards. The Conceptual Working Paper provides a rationale for including specific questions about out-of-education children/learners who have no access to any form of education within future EASIE data collection work.