This glossary is a collection of terms and their operational definitions as they were used in a variety of Agency projects. You can use the filter to search and select the terms you want to see based on their place in the alphabet or the projects that they are related to.




‘The right of an organisation, country or region to be independent and govern itself’ (Oxford Dictionaries, no date).

In the field of education, the degrees of autonomy different professionals within educational organisations have for decision‑making are important. Another aspect of autonomy for consideration is the degree of autonomy learners have over their learning environments and programmes.


Awareness raising campaigns can be defined as organised communication activities which aim to create awareness on particular topics (health, environment, education), behavioural change among the general population and to improve the focus on better outcomes (better health, greater environmental protection, reduced early school leaving). They often take the form of mass media campaigns.

Messages can be conveyed through many different channels, such as mass media (television, radio), social media, public relations, events, talks, demonstrations, tours and leaflets. 

Awareness raising campaigns are recognised as the most efficient and effective means of communicating information especially to the general public. Still, not all of them are effective in terms of influencing people’s beliefs and changing their behaviour (Masiulienė et al., no date, p. 4).


Obstacles that prevent learners from accessing a full range of learning opportunities and limit their participation in society. Disability is often considered to be due to ‘disabling barriers’ which can be addressed by designing enabling, accessible environments. Barriers can be due to attitudes, language, culture, organisation of support services, power relations and structures within society.

Baseline assessment

Baseline assessment is a first assessment in a general or specific area of functioning to determine a learner’s profile of strengths and weaknesses at a particular time. Baseline assessments are often given at the start of teaching and learning programmes. They serve as a starting ‘measure’ to assess progress over a period of time.


A reference point or standard against which performance or achievements can be assessed. A benchmark refers to the performance that has been achieved in the recent past by other comparable organisations, or what can be reasonably inferred to have been achieved in the circumstances.


The process of building the capacity of mainstream schools to meet the needs of all learners, rather than distributing additional resources for learners with additional support needs. This process involves increasing the knowledge and skills of all education professionals (i.e. leaders, teachers and specialist staff), as well as enhancing the collaborative practices within schools and across the local communities, with the ultimate aim of transforming learning and teaching and improving learner outcomes (European Agency, 2014; UNESCO, 2011).


Captions are intended for audiences who cannot hear the dialogue. In contrast to subtitles, captions include a description of who is speaking, as well as sounds.

Career counsellor

A career counsellor is a person who informs, advises, orients and helps young people to make the right choices in transitions between the areas of education, profession and life. Counselling reduces levels of unemployment and social exclusion while increasing young people’s mobility and active citizenship. It provides meaningful transition opportunities for learners. (Refer to:;

Child-friendly schools

Child-friendly schools adopt a rights-based, multi-sectoral approach, concerned with the whole child. According to UNICEF:

Schools should operate in the best interests of the child. Educational environments must be safe, healthy and protective, endowed with trained teachers, adequate resources and appropriate physical, emotional and social conditions for learning. Within them, children’s rights must be protected and their voices must be heard. Learning environments must be a haven for children to learn and grow, with innate respect for their identities and varied needs. The CFS model promotes inclusiveness, gender-sensitivity, tolerance, dignity and personal empowerment (UNESCO/European Agency, no date).

Closed captions

Captions that can be selected to be visible or not versus captions that are visible by default.

Cloud-based solutions / Cloud services

‘Cloud services are delivered via the Internet from’ … ‘locations remote from the end user and their institution’ (UNESCO IITE, 2010, p. 2).

Co-operation / cross-sectoral working

Cross-sectoral policies (e.g. for youth) should be: ‘formulated and implemented with the participation of the authorities in charge of all important domains for the life of young people’ (European Commission, 2018).

Co-teaching / team-teaching

Co-teaching (or team-teaching) is when two educators work together to plan, organise, instruct and make assessments on the same group of learners, sharing the same classroom. According to Cook and Friend (1995), co-teaching involves two or more professionals, usually a mainstream and a special education teacher, delivering substantive instruction to a diverse, or blended, group of learners in a single physical space.

Collaborative learning

Opposed to individual learning, collaborative learning develops a community-centred approach. It is a recent trend in human learning and cognition that emphasises participation, joint meaning-making, discourse and dialogue. It is characterised by collaboration, creative processes and the use of new technology.

Community-based approach

Community-based approach motivates women, girls, boys and men in the community to participate in a process which allows them to express their needs and to decide their own future with a view to their empowerment. It requires recognition that they are active participants in decision-making. It also seeks to understand the community’s concerns and priorities, mobilizing community members and engaging them in protection and programming (Defined Term, no date).

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